Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, and possibly bolts, for protection. In contrast, in traditional climbing the rock is typically devoid of fixed anchors and bolts and climbers must place removable protection as they climb. Since the need to place protection is virtually eliminated, sport climbing places an emphasis on gymnastic-like ability, strength, and endurance, whereas traditional climbing emphasizes adventure, risk and self-sufficiency. Read more at Wikipedia
There are 3 formats to the sport:
a) Lead Climbing: which tests how far one can climb.
b) Speed Climbing: which tests how fast one can climb.
c) Bouldering: which test how difficult a route one can climb.